Oncogenes and Cancer

Retroviruses can take up cellular genes, which are modified to become oncogenes and cause cancer in animals. Such oncogenes were the bases for cancer research for several decades. We used a universal approach to isolate and characterize oncogene proteins with a monoclonal antibody against a fusion protein linked to viral oncoproteins. By this approach we isolated and characterized the Myc protein as nuclear transcription factor, Myb, ErbB and the Raf kinase. Raf kinase was a focus of research, most importantly a cross-talk with the Akt kinase, led to novel results, indicating that Raf is not only active in growth promotion but also in differentiation. Furthermore we studied oncogenes like Tax, Bcr-Abl, telomerase, and most recently Src. We showed that a single point mutation at the very C-terminus of Src leads to metastasis formation due to loss of binding to a tumor suppressor PDZ protein.

Publications about oncogenes and cancer

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  1. ***Donner, P., Greiser-Wilke, I. and Moelling, K. Nuclear localization and DNA-binding of the transforming gene product of avian myelocytomatosis virus. Nature 296, 262-266 (1982).
  2. *Bunte, T., Greiser-Wilke, I., Donner, P. and Moelling, K. Association of gag-myc proteins from avian myelocytomatosis virus wild-type and mutants with chromatin. EMBO J. 1, 919-927 (1982).
  3. Bunte, T. and Moelling, K. Analysis of two phosphoproteins related to pp60src from Schmidt-Ruppin D virus particles. J. Gen. Virol. 64, 723-726 (1983).
  4. Moelling, K., Owada, M.K., Greiser-Wilke, I., Bunte, T. and Donner, P. Biochemical characterization of transformation-specific proteins of acute avian leukemia and sarcoma viruses. J. Cell. Biochem. 20, 63-69 (1982).
  5. Moelling, K., Greiser-Wilke, I., Owada, M.K., Donner, P. and Bunte, T. DNA-binding ability of transforming proteins from avian erythroblastosis virus and mutant avian myelocytomatosis virus, MC29, in comparison with MC29 wild type. In: Haematology and Blood Transfusion, Vol. 28, “Modern Trends in Human Leukemia V”, Eds. Neth, Gallo, Greaves, Moore, Winkler. Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg, pp. 214-217 (1983).
  6. ***Donner, P., Bunte, T., Greiser-Wilke, I. and Moelling, K. Decreased DNA-binding ability of purified transformation-specific proteins from deletion mutants of the acute avian leukemia virus MC29. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80, 2861-2865 (1983).
  7. *Bunte, T., Greiser-Wilke, I. and Moelling, K. The transforming protein of the MC29-related virus CMII is a nuclear DNA-binding protein whereas MH2 codes for a cyto-plasmic RNA-DNA binding polyprotein. EMBO J. 2, 1087-1092 (1983).
  8. Moelling, K. Molecular mechanisms of malignant transformation by oncornaviruses. In: “Mechanisms of B Cell Neoplasia”. Eds. F. Melchers, M. Potter, M. Weigert, Edition Roche, Basel, pp. 307-316 (1983).
  9. Moelling, K., Donner, P., Bunte, T. and Greiser-Wilke, I. Molecular mechanisms of malignant transformation by oncornaviruses. In: “Contributions to Oncology”, Vol. 19, “Genes and Antigens in Cancer Cells – The Monoclonal Antibody Approach”. Eds. G. Riethmüller, H. Koprowski, S. von Kleist, K. Munk. Karger, Basel, pp. 35-43 (1984).
  10. *Bunte, T., Donner, P., Pfaff, E., Reis, B., Greiser-Wilke, I., Schaller, H. and Moelling, K. Inhibition of DNA binding of purified p55v-myc in vitro by antibodies against bacterially expressed myc protein and a synthetic peptide. EMBO J. 3, 1919-1924 (1984).
  11. Moelling, K., Benter, T., Bunte, T., Pfaff, E., Deppert, W., Egly, J.M. and Miyamoto, N.B. Properties of the myc-gene product: Nuclear association, inhibition of transcription and activation in stimulated lymphocytes. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 113, 198-207 (1984).
  12. Moelling, K., Bunte, T., Greiser-Wilke, I., Donner, P. and Pfaff, E. Properties of the avian viral transforming proteins gag-myc, myc, and gag-mil. In: “Cancer Cells, Vol. 2, Oncogenes and Viral Genes”, Eds. G.F. van de Woude, A.J. Levine, W.C. Topp, J.D. Watsons. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, pp. 173-180 (1984).
  13. ***Moelling, K., Heimann, B., Beimling, P., Rapp, U.R. and Sander, T.: Serine- and threonine-specific protein kinase activities of purified gag-mil and gag-raf proteins. Nature 312, 558-561 (1984).
  14. Moelling, K.: Fusion proteins in retroviral transformation. In: “Advances in Cancer Research”, Vol. 43. Eds. G. Klein, S. Weinhouse, Academic Press, New York, pp. 205-239 (1985).
  15. **Moelling, K., Pfaff, E., Beug, H., Beimling, P., Bunte, T., Schaller, H.E. and Graf, T. DNA-binding activity is associated with purified myb proteins from AMV and E26 viruses and is temperature-sensitive for E26 ts mutants. Cell 40, 983-990 (1985).
  16. Benter, T., Beimling, P., Pfaff, E., Sander, T., Heimann, B. and Moelling, K. Identification of the human cellular myc gene product by antibody against the bacterially expressed protein. In: Haematology and Blood Transfusion, Vol. 29. “Modern Trends in Human Leukemia VI”, Eds. R. Neth, R.C. Gallo, M.F. Greaves, R. Janka. Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg, pp. 266-268 (1985).
  17. Heimann, B., Beimling, P., Pfaff, E., Schaller, H. and Moelling, K. Analysis of a tyrosine-specific protein kinase activity associated with the retroviral erbB oncogene product. Exp. Cell Res. 161, 199-208 (1985).
  18. Beimling, P., Benter, T., Sander, T. and Moelling, K. Isolation and characterization of the human cellular myc gene product. Biochemistry 24, 6349-6355 (1985).
  19. Moelling, K., Sander, T., Lorenz, U., Beimling, P. and Bading, H. Interaction of the oncogene protein myc with specific DNA fragments. J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. 112, 97-99 (1986).
  20. Moelling, K. Properties of the myc and myb gene products. In: “Oncogenes and Growth Control”, Eds. P. Kahn, T. Graf. Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg, pp. 271-277 (1986).
  21. Moelling, K., Lorenz, U., Beimling, P., Heimann, B., Thomas, G., Bading, H. and Sander, T. Biochemical properties of oncogene-coded proteins. In: “Cell Cycle and Oncogenes”, Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg, pp. 105-113 (1986).
  22. Moelling, K., Heimann, B., Beimling, P., Bepler, G., Köppler, H., Havemann, K. and Balzer, T. Analysis of oncogene proteins in human cell tumor lines. In: “Contributions to Oncology”, Eds. S. Eckhards, J.W. Holzner, G. Nagel, Vol. 24. Eds. P.H. Hofschneider, K. Munk. Karger, Basel, pp. 76-86 (1987).
  23. Bading, H., Hansen, J. and Moelling, K. Selective DNA binding of the human cellular myb protein isolated by immunoaffinity chromatography using a monoclonal antibody. Oncogene 1, 395-401 (1987).
  24. Moelling, K., Heimann, B., Bading, H., Häder, M., Bepler, G., Havemann, K. and Beutler, C. Proteins of oncogenes in human tumor cells. In: “Modulation of Liver Cell Expression”, Eds. W. Reutter, H. Popper, I.M. Arias, P.C. Heinrich, D. Keppler, L. Landmann. MTP Press Ltd., Lancaster, England, pp. 275-285 (1987).
  25. Bading, H., Beutler, C., Beimling, P., Gerdes, J., Stein, H. and Moelling, K. Monoclonal antibodies against the viral and human cellular myb-gene product. In: Haematology and Blood Transfusion, Vol. 31. “Modern Trends in Human Leukemia VII”, Eds. R. Neth, R.C. Gallo, M.F. Greaves, H. Kabisch. Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg, pp. 488-492 (1987).
  26. Häder, M., Stach-Machado, D., Pflüger, K.-H., Rotsch, M., Heimann, B., Moelling, K. and Havemann, K. Epidermal growth factor receptor expression, proliferation, and colony stimulating activity production in the urinary bladder carcinoma cell line 5637. J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. 113, 579-585 (1987).
  27. **Denhez, F., Heimann, B., d’Auriol, L., Graf, T., Coquillaud, M., Coll, J., Galibert, F., Moelling, K., Stehelin, D. and Ghysdael, J. Replacement of lys 622 in the ATP binding domain of P100gag-mil abolishes the in vitro autophosphorylation of the protein and the biological properties of the v-mil oncogene of MH2 virus. EMBO J. 7, 541-546 (1988).
  28. Bading, H., Gerdes, J., Schwarting, R., Stein, H. and Moelling, K. Nuclear and cytoplasmic distribution of cellular myb protein in human haematopoietic cells evidenced by monoclonal antibody. Oncogene 3, 257-265 (1988).
  29. Müller, R., Klempnauer, K.-H., Moelling, K., Beug, H. and Vennström, B. Cellular oncogenes encoding nuclear proteins: fos, myb, myc and erbA. In: “Cellular Oncogene Activation”. Ed. Klein, G., Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, Basel, pp. 1-54 (1988).
  30. Denhez, F., Galibert, F., Heimann, B., Dozier, C., Graf, T., Moelling, K., Stehelin, D. and Ghysdael, J. An invariant asparagine residue belonging to a highly conserved domain in all protein kinases is instrumental in the protein kinase activity of the v-mil gene product. Oncogene Research 3, 199-205 (1988).
  31. Bazin, H., Chattopadhyaya, J., Datema, R., Ericson, A.-C., Gilljam, G., Johansson, N.G., Hansen, J., Koshida, R., Moelling, K., Öberg, B., Remaud, G., Stening, G., Vrang, L., Wahren, B. and Wu, J.C. An analysis of the inhibition of replication of HIV and MULV by some 3′-blocked pyrimidine analogs. Biochemical Pharmacology 38, 109-119 (1989).
  32. Bepler, G., Bading, H., Heimann, B., Kiefer, P, Havemann, K. and Moelling, K. Expression of p64c-myc and neuroendocrine properties define three subclasses of small cell lung cancer. Oncogene 4, 45-50 (1989).
  33. Bading, H., Beutler, C. and Moelling, K. Mapping of a small phosphopeptide at the carboxyterminus of the viral myb protein by monoclonal antibodies. Oncogene 4, 33-38 (1989).
  34. *Beimling, P. and Moelling, K. Isolation and characterization of the tax-protein of HTLV-I. Oncogene 4, 511-516 (1989).
  35. Bading, H., Rauterberg, E.W. and Moelling, K. Distribution of c-myc, c-myb, and Ki 67 antigen in interphase and mitotic human cells evidenced by immunofluorescence staining technique. Experim. Cell Res. 185, 50-59 (1989).
  36. Beimling, P. and Moelling, K. Tax-independent binding of multiple cellular factors to Tax-response element DNA of HTLV-I. Oncogene 5, 361-368 (1990).
  37. *Kalkbrenner, F., Guehmann, S., and Moelling, K. Transcriptional activation by human c-myb and v-myb genes.
  38. Haeder, M., Rotsch, M., Bepler, G., Hennig, C., Havemann, K., Heimann, B. and Moelling, K. Epidermal growth factor receptor expression in human lung cancer cell lines. Cancer Research 48, 1132-1136 (1988).
  39. Kalthoff, H., Röder, C., Schewe, K., Schmiegel, W., Thiele, H.-G., Heimann, B., Bading, H., Schramm, K. and Moelling, K. Analysis of c-raf-oncogene expression in gastrointestinal tumor cells. In: Modern Trends in Human Leukaemia, VIII, Ed. R. Neth, p. 436-439 (1989).
  40. Bading, H. and Moelling, K. Transcriptional down-regulation of c-myc expression by protein synthesis-dependent and -independent pathways in a human T-lymphoblastic tumor cell line. Cell Growth and Differentiation 1, 113-117 (1990).
  41. Lorenz, U., Sock, E., Grummt, F. and Moelling, K. Analysis of DNA sequences present in complexes of v-Myc and cellular DNA. Oncogene 6, 51-57 (1991).
  42. Zobel, A., Kalkbrenner, F., Guehmann, S., Nawrath, M., Vorbrueggen, G. and Moelling, K. Interaction of the v- and c-Myb proteins with regulatory sequences of the human c-myc gene: Oncogene 6, 1397-1407 (1991).
  43. *Beimling, P. and Moelling, K. Direct interaction of CREB protein with 21 bp Tax-response elements of HTLV-1 LTR. Oncogene 7, 257-262 (1992).
  44. Bouwmeester, T., Guehmann, S., El-Baradi, T., Kalkbrenner, F., van Wijk, I., Moelling, K. and Pieler, T. Molecular cloning, expression and in vitro functional characterization of myb-related proteins in Xenopus. Mech. of Developm. 37, 57-68 (1992).
  45. Zobel, A., Kalkbrenner, F., Vorbrueggen, G. and Moelling, K. Transactivation of the human c-myc gene by c-Myb. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 186, 715-722 (1992).
  46. *Guehmann, S., Vorbrueggen, G, Kalkbrenner, F. and Moelling, K. Reduction of a conserved cys is essential for Myb-DNA binding. Nucl. Acid Res. 20, 2279-2286 (1992).
  47. Pachuk, C.J., Yoon, K., Moelling, K., Coney, L.R. Selective cleavage of bcr-abl chimeric RNAs by a ribozyme targeted to non-contiguous sequences. Nucl. Acid. Res. 22, 301-307 (1994).
  48. Moelling, K., Mueller, G., Dannull, J., Reuss, C., Beimling, P., Bartz, C., Wiedenmann, B., Yoon, K., Surovoy, A. and Jung, G. Stimulation of Ki-ras ribozyme activity by RNA binding protein NCp7 in vitro and in pancreatic tumor cell line Capan 1. In: “Molecular and Cell Biological Aspects of Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor Disease”: (B. Wiedenmann, L.K. Kvols, R. Arnold, E.O. Riecken, eds.) Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 733, 113-121 (1994).
  49. Lovric, J., Bischoff, O. and Moelling, K. Cell cycle-dependent association of Gag-Mil and hsp90. FEBS Letters 343, 15-21 (1994).
  50. Schramm, K., Niehof, M., Radziwill, G., Rommel, C. and Moelling, K. Phosphorylation of c-Raf-1 by protein kinase A interferes with activation. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Com. 201, 740-747 (1994).
  51. Vorbrüggen, G., Kalkbrenner, F., Guehmann, S. and Moelling, K. The carboxyterminus of human c-myb protein stimulates activated transcription in trans. Nucleic Acids Res. 22, 2466-2475 (1994).
  52. Beimling, P., Niehof, M., Radziwill, G. and Moelling, K. The aminoterminus of c-Raf-1 binds a protein kinase phosphorylation Ser259. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Com. 204, 841-848 (1994).
  53. **Radziwill, G., Niehof, M., Rommel, C. and Moelling, K. Direct interaction and aminoterminal phosphorylation of c-Jun by c-Mil/Raf. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92, 1421-1425 (1995).
  54. Nuernberg, W., Artuc, M., Vorbrueggen, G., Kalkbrenner, F., Moelling, K., Czarnetzki, B.M. and Schadendorf, D. Nuclear proto-oncogene products transactivate the human papillomavirus type 16 promoter. B. J. of Cancer 71, 1018-1024 (1995).
  55. Goren, I., Semmes, O.J., Jeang, K.T. and Moelling, K. The amino terminus of Tax is required for interaction with the cyclic AMP response element binding protein. J.Virol. 69, 5806-5811 (1995).
  56. *Rommel, C., Radziwill, G., Lovric’, J., Noeldeke, J., Heinicke, T., Jones, D., Aitken, A. and Moelling, K. Activated Ras displaces 14-3-3 protein from the amino terminus of c-Raf-1. Oncogene 12, 609-619 (1996).
  57. Lovric’, J. and Moelling, K. Activation of Mil/Raf protein kinases in mitotic cells. Oncogene 12, 1109-1116 (1996).
  58. Lovric’, J., Radziwill, G. and Moelling, K. Specific association of Mil/Raf proteins with a 34 kDa phospoprotein. Oncogene 12, 1145-1151 (1996).Vorbrueggen, G., Lovric’, J. and Moelling, K. Functional analysis of phosphorylation at serine 532 of human c-Myb by MAP-kinase. Biol. Chem. 377, 721-730 (1996).
  59. Radziwill, G., Steinhusen, U., Aitken, A. and Moelling, K. Inhibition of Raf/MAPK signaling in Xenopus oocyte extracts by Raf-1 specific peptides. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Com. 227, 20-26(1996).
  60. *Rommel, C., Radziwill, G., Moelling, K. and Hafen, E. Negative regulation of Raf activity by binding of 14-3-3 to the amino terminus of Raf in vivo. Mechanisms of Development 64, 95-104 (1997).
  61. Zimmermann S., Rommel C., Ziogas A., Lovric’ J., Moelling K. and Radziwill G. MEK1 mediates a positive feedback on Raf-1 activity independently of Ras and Src. Oncogene 15, 1503-1511 (1997).
  62. Golay, J., Broccoli, V., Borleri, G.-M., Erba, E., Faretta, M., Basilico, L., Ying, G.-G., Piccinini, G., Shapiro, L.H., Lovric, J., Nawrath M., Moelling, K., Rambaldi, A. and Introna M. Redundant functions of B-Myb and c-Myb in differentiating myeloid cells. Cell Growth and Differentiation, 8 (12), 1305-1316 (1997).
  63. Ziogas, A., Lorenz, I. C., Moelling K. and Radziwill G. Mitotic Raf-1 is stimulated independently of Ras and is active in the cytoplasm. J. Biol. Chem. 273, 24108-24114 (1998).
  64. *Buchert, M., Schneider, S., Adams, M., Baechi, T., Moelling, K. and Hovens, C.M. The junction-associated protein AF-6 interacts and clusters with specific Eph receptor tyrosine kinase at specialized sites of cell-cell-contact in the brain. J. Cell Biol 144, 361-371 (1999).
  65. Kasono, K., Piché, A., Xiang, J., Kim, H., Bilbao, G., Johanning, F., Nawrath, M., Moelling, K. and Curiel, D.T. Functional knock-out of c-myb by an intracellular anti-c-Myb single-chain antibody. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Com., 251, 124-130 (1999).
  66. ***Lowrie, D.B., Tascon, R.E., Bonato, V.L.D., Lima, V.M.F., Faccioli, L.H., Stavropoulos, E., Colston, M.J., Hewinson, R.G., Moelling, K. and Silva, C.L. Therapy of tuberculosis in mice by DNA vaccination. Nature 400, 269-271 (1999). Lowrie 1999.pdf
  67. Heinicke, T., Radziwill, G., Nawrath, M., Rommel, C., Pavlovic, J. and Moelling, K. Retroviral gene transfer of dominant negative Raf-1 mutants suppresses Ha-ras-induced transformation and delays tumor formation. Cancer Gene Therapy 7, 697-706 (2000).
  68. Heinrich, J., Bosse, M., Eickhoff, H., Nietfeld, W., Reinhardt, R., Lehrach, H. and Moelling, K. Induction of putative tumor-suppressing genes in Rat-1 fibroblasts by oncogenic Raf-1 as evidenced by robot-assisted subtractive hybridization. Journal of Molecular Medicine 78, 380-388 (2000).
  69. Nawrath, M., Pavlovic, J. and Moelling, K. Inhibition of human hematopoietic tumor formation by targeting a repressor Myb-KRAB to DNA. Cancer Gene Therapy 7, 963-972 (2000).
  70. ***Rommel, Ch., Clarke, B.A., Zimmermann, S., Nunez, L., Rossman, R., Reid, K., Moelling, K., Yancopoulos, G.D. and Glass, D.J. Differentiation stage-specific inhibition of the Raf-MEK-ERK pathway by Akt. Science 286, 1738-1741 (1999).Rommel 1999.pdf
  71. ***Zimmermann, S. and Moelling, K. Phosphorylation and regulation of Raf by Akt (protein kinase B). Science 286, 1741-1744 (1999).Zimmermann 1999.pdf
  72. *Reusch, H.P., Zimmermann, S., Schaefer, M., Paul, M., Moelling, K. Regulation of Raf by Akt controls growth and differentiation in vascular smooth muscle cells. J. Biol. Chem. 276, 33630-33637 (2001). – Reusch 2001.pdf
  73. Moelling, K., Schad, K., Bosse, M., Zimmermann, S., Schweneker, M. Regulation of Raf-Akt cross-talk. J. Biol. Chem. 34, 31099-31106 (2002).
  74. Ladell, K., Heinrich, J., Schweneker, M., Moelling, K. A combination of plasmid DNAs encoding murine Flk-1 extracellular domain, murine IL-12 and murine IP-10 lead to tumor regression and survival in melanoma-bearing mice. J. Mol. Med. 81, 271-278 (2003).
  75. *Radziwill, G., Erdmann, R.A., Margelisch, U., Moelling K. The Bcr kinase downregulates Ras signaling by phosphorylating AF-6 and binding to its PDZ domain. Molecular and Cellular Biology 23, 13, 4663-4672 (2003).
  76. Ziogas, A., Moelling, K. and Radziwill, G. CNK1 is a scaffold protein that regulates Src-mediated Raf-1 activation. J Biol Chem. 280, 25, 24205-24211 (2005).
  77. **Ress, A., Moelling, K. Bcr is a negative regulator of the Wnt signalling pathway. EMBO reports 6, 11, 1095-1100 (2005) – Ress 2005
  78. Ress, A. and Moelling, K. Bcr interferes with β-catenin-Tcf1 interaction FEBS Letters 580, 1227-1230 (2006).
  79. *Lorger, M. and Moelling, K. Regulation of epithelial wound closure and cell-cell adhesion by interaction of AF6 with actin cytoskeleton. JCS 119, 3385-3398 (2006) – Lorger 2006
  80. *Fritzius, Th., Burkard, G., Haas, E., Heinrich, J., Schweneker, M., Bosse, M., Zimmermann, S., Frey, A.D., Caelers, A., Bachmann, A.S. and Moelling, K. A WD-FYVE protein binds to the kinases Akt and PKCζ/λ. Biochemical Journal, 399, 9-20 (2006) – Fritzius 2006
  81. Usluoglu, N., Pavlovic, J., Moelling, K. and Radziwill, G. RIP2 mediates LPS-induced p-38 and IκBα signaling including IL-12 p40 expression in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells Eur. J. Immunol. 37, 2317-2325 (2007).
  82. *Radziwill, G., Weiss, A., Heinrich, J., Baumgartner, M., Boisguerin, P., Owada, K. and Moelling, K. Regulation of c-Src by binding to the PDZ domain of AF-6. EMBO J, 26, 2633-2644 (2007). – Radziwill 2007
  83. Fritzius, Th., Frey, A.D., Schweneker, M., Mayer, D. and Moelling, K. WD- repeat-propeller-FYVE protein, ProF, binds VAMP2 and protein kinase Cζ. FEBS Journal 274, 1552-1566 (2007).
  84. Ortner, E. and Moelling, K. Heteromeric complex formation of ASK2 and ASK1 regulates stress-induced signaling. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 362, 454–459 (2007) – Ortner 2007
  85. Weiss, A., Baumgartner, M., Radziwill, G. Dennler, J. and Moelling, K. c-Src is a PDZ-interacting partner and substrate of the E3 ubiquitin ligase ligand-of-numb protein X1. FEBS Lett. 581, 5131-5136 (2007) – Weiss 2007
  86. *Baumgartner, M., Radziwill, G. Lorger, M., Weiss, A. and Moelling, K. c-Src-mediated epithelial cell migration and invasion regulated by PDZ binding site. Molecular and Cellular Biology, 28, 642-655 (2008) – Baumgartner 2008
  87. *Fritzius, Th. and Moelling, K. Akt- and Foxo1- interacting WD-repeat-FYVE protein promotes adipogenesis EMBO J 27, 1399-1410 (2008) Fritzius 2008
  88. Noreen, F., Heinrich, J. and Moelling, K. Anti-tumor activity of small double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides targeting telomerase RNA in malignant melanoma cells. Oligonucleotides 19:2, 169-178 (2009) – Noreen 2009
  89. Baumgartner, M., Weiss, A., Fritzius, T., Heinrich, J., and Moelling, K. The PDZ protein MPP2 interacts with c-Src in epithelial cells. Experimental Cell Research 315: 2888-2898 (2009) – Baumgartner 2009
  90. Hofmann M., Heinrich, J., Radziwill, G., and Moelling, K. A short hairpin DNA analogous to miR125b inhibits C-Raf expression, proliferation and survival in breast cancer cells. Molecular Cancer Research 7, 1635-1644 (2009) – Hofmann 2009
  91. Vargas, C., Radziwil, G., Krause, G., Diehl, A., Keller, S., Schmieder, P., Doyle, D., Moelling, K., Hagen, V., Schade, M. and Oschkinat, H. Small-molecule inhibitors of AF6-mediated protein-protein interactions (to be resubmitted)